Thucydides I.2

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-06 20:42:13
  • Modified on 2018-09-11 02:56:42
  • Translated by JEREMY MYNOTT
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
History of the Peloponnesian War
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English
φαίνεται γὰρ νῦν Ἑλλὰς καλουμένη οὐ πάλαι βεβαίως οἰκουμένη , ἀλλὰ μεταναστάσεις τε οὖσαι τὰ πρότερα καὶ ῥᾳδίως ἕκαστοι τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀπολείποντες βιαζόμενοι ὑπό τινων αἰεὶ πλειόνων . τῆς γὰρ ἐμπορίας οὐκ οὔσης , οὐδ ' ἐπιμειγνύντες ἀδεῶς ἀλλήλοις οὔτε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε διὰ θαλάσσης , νεμόμενοί τε τὰ αὑτῶν ἕκαστοι ὅσον ἀποζῆν καὶ περιουσίαν χρημάτων οὐκ ἔχοντες οὐδὲ γῆν φυτεύοντες , ἄδηλον ὂν ὁπότε τις ἐπελθὼν καὶ ἀτειχίστων ἅμα ὄντων ἄλλος ἀφαιρήσεται , τῆς τε καθ ' ἡμέραν ἀναγκαίου τροφῆς πανταχοῦ ἂν ἡγούμενοι ἐπικρατεῖν , οὐ χαλεπῶς ἀπανίσταντο , καὶ δι ' αὐτὸ οὔτε μεγέθει πόλεων ἴσχυον οὔτε τῇ ἄλλῃ παρασκευῇ . μάλιστα δὲ τῆς γῆς ἀρίστη αἰεὶ τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν οἰκητόρων εἶχεν , τε νῦν Θεσσαλία καλουμένη καὶ Βοιωτία Πελοποννήσου τε τὰ πολλὰ πλὴν Ἀρκαδίας , τῆς τε ἄλλης ὅσα ἦν κράτιστα . διὰ γὰρ ἀρετὴν γῆς αἵ τε δυνάμεις τισὶ μείζους ἐγγιγνόμεναι στάσεις ἐνεποίουν ἐξ ὧν ἐφθείροντο , καὶ ἅμα ὑπὸ ἀλλοφύλων μᾶλλον ἐπεβουλεύοντο . τὴν γοῦν Ἀττικὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον διὰ τὸ λεπτόγεων ἀστασίαστον οὖσαν ἄνθρωποι ᾤκουν οἱ αὐτοὶ αἰεί . καὶ παράδειγμα τόδε τοῦ λόγου οὐκ ἐλάχιστόν ἐστι διὰ τὰς μετοικίας ἐς τὰ ἄλλα μὴ ὁμοίως αὐξηθῆναι · ἐκ γὰρ τῆς ἄλλης Ἑλλάδος οἱ πολέμῳ στάσει ἐκπίπτοντες παρ ' Ἀθηναίους οἱ δυνατώτατοι ὡς βέβαιον ὂν ἀνεχώρουν , καὶ πολῖται γιγνόμενοι εὐθὺς ἀπὸ παλαιοῦ μείζω ἔτι ἐποίησαν πλήθει ἀνθρώπων τὴν πόλιν , ὥστε καὶ ἐς Ἰωνίαν ὕστερον ὡς οὐχ ἱκανῆς οὔσης τῆς Ἀττικῆς ἀποικίας ἐξέπεμψαν .
It is evident that long ago what is now called ‘Hellas’ had no stable settlements ; instead there were various migrations in these early times and each group readily abandoned their own territory whenever forced to do so by those with superior numbers . For there was no commerce and people were insecure about making contact with each other either by land or sea , so they each lived off their own land just at subsistence level and neither produced any surplus goods nor planted the ground , since they had no walls and never knew when some invader might come and rob them . They took the view that they could secure their daily needs for sustenance anywhere , and so were not exercised about uprooting and moving on , with the consequence that they had no cities of any size or other general resources to make them strong . It was always the finest land that was most subject to changes of population : namely , what is now called Thessaly , Boeotia , most of the Peloponnese excluding Arcadia , and the best parts elsewhere . And the quality of the land gave some groups more power than others , and that led to internal conflict , which destroyed them and at the same time encouraged outsiders to have designs on them . Attica , at any rate , has been free of such strife from the earliest times on account of its poor soil and has always been inhabited by the same people . This is a good illustration of my argument that it was because of relocations that other places did not develop in the same way as Attica ; for the most powerful figures from other parts of Greece , who were driven out either by war or internal conflict , resorted to the safety of Athens , and by becoming citizens right from the very earliest times they so increased the city’s population that Attica could not contain them and the Athenians later sent out colonies to occupy Ionia as well .

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Thucydides I.1

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-06 19:57:22
  • Modified on 2018-09-11 02:56:32
  • Translated by JEREMY MYNOTT
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
History of the Peloponnesian War
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English

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Xen. Cyrop. 1.2.1

Farnoosh Shamsian / Cyropaedia
  • Created on 2018-08-26 10:51:15
  • Modified on 2018-08-26 10:52:41
  • Translated by Reza Mashayekhi & Khashayar Rokhsani
  • Aligned by Farnoosh Shamsian
Ἑλληνική
فارسی
فارسی
πατρὸς μὲν δὴ Κῦρος λέγεται γενέσθαι Καμβύσου Περσῶν βασιλέως : δὲ Καμβύσης οὗτος τοῦ Περσειδῶν γένους ἦν : οἱ δὲ Περσεῖδαι ἀπὸ Περσέως κλῄζονται : μητρὸς δὲ ὁμολογεῖται Μανδάνης γενέσθαι : δὲ Μανδάνη αὕτη Ἀστυάγους ἦν θυγάτηρ τοῦ Μήδων γενομένου βασιλέως .
پدر كورش را كمبوجيه , پادشاه پارس , مى دانند . كمبوجيه از نژاد پارسيان بود كه نامشان از پرسه مشتق مى شود . مادرش به عقيده عامه مورخان ماندان بوده است . ماندان دختر آستياژ , پادشاه ماد , بوده است .
گُفته میشود که پدر کوروش کامبیز بوده است , پادشاه پارس : کامبیز وابسته به دودمان ( قبیله ) پرسیدا بود , و دودمان " پرسیدا " ریشۀِ نام خود را از پرسئوس گرفته‌اند . مادر کوروش ماندانا است که همه با آن همداستان می‌باشند ; و این ماندانا دُختَر اَشَه‌تِه‌آگ پادشاه کشور ماد می‌باشد .

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SUDA Ε 3695 ADLER = T 3 KANNICHT

cristiana caserta /
  • Created on 2018-08-21 18:52:35
  • Modified on 2018-08-21 18:57:13
  • Translated by Translation by S. Burges Watson, Living Poets, (Durham, 2014)
  • Aligned by cristiana caserta
Euripide
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English
Εὐριπίδης , Μνησάρχου Μνησαρχίδου καὶ Κλειτοῦς , οἳ φεύγοντες εἰς Βοιωτίαν μετώικησαν , εἶτα ἐν τῆι Ἀττικῆι . οὐκ ἀληθὲς δέ , ὡς λαχανόπωλις ἦν μήτηρ αὐτοῦ · καὶ γὰρ τῶν σφόδρα εὐγενῶν ἐτύγχανεν , ὡς ἀποδείκνυσι Φιλόχορος . ἐν δὲ τῆι διαβάσει Ξέρξου ἐκυοφορεῖτο ὑπὸ τῆς μητρὸς καὶ ἐτέχθη καθ’ ἣν ἡμέραν Ἕλληνες ἐτρέψαντο τοὺς Πέρσας .
2 γέγονε δὲ τὰ πρῶτα ζωγράφος , εἶτα μαθητὴς Προδίκου μὲν ἐν τοῖς ῥητορικοῖς , Σωκράτους δὲ ἐν τοῖς ἠθικοῖς καὶ φιλοσόφοις . διήκουσε δὲ καὶ Ἀναξαγόρου τοῦ Κλαζομενίου , ἐπὶ τραγωιδίαν δὲ ἐτράπη τὸν Ἀναξαγόραν ἰδὼν ὑποστάντα κινδύνους δι’ ἅπερ εἰσῆξε δόγματα .
3 σκυθρωπὸς δὲ ἦν τὸ ἦθος καὶ ἀμειδὴς καὶ φεύγων τὰς συνουσίας · ὅθεν καὶ μισογύνης ἐδοξάσθη . ἔγημε δὲ ὅμως πρώτην μὲν Χοιρίνην θυγατέρα Μνησιλόχου , ἐξ ἧς ἔσχε Μνησίλοχον καὶ Μνησαρχίδην καὶ Εὐριπίδην . ἀπωσάμενος δὲ ταύτην ἔσχε καὶ δευτέραν , καὶ ταύτης ὁμοίως ἀκολάστου πειραθείς .
4 ἀπάρας δὲ ἀπ’ Ἀθηνῶν ἦλθε πρὸς Ἀρχέλαον τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Μακεδόνων , παρ’ ὧι διῆγε τῆς ἄκρας ἀπολαύων τιμῆς . ἐτελεύτησε δὲ ὑπὸ ἐπιβουλῆς Ἀρριβαίου τοῦ Μακεδόνος καὶ Κρατεύα τοῦ Θετταλοῦ , ποιητῶν ὄντων καὶ φθονησάντων αὐτῶι πεισάντων τε τὸν βασιλέως οἰκέτην τοὔνομα Λυσίμαχον , δέκα μνῶν ἀγορασθέντα τοὺς βασιλέως οὓς αὐτὸς ἔτρεφε κύνας ἐπαφεῖναι αὐτῶι . οἱ δὲ ἱστόρησαν οὐχ ὑπὸ κυνῶν , ἀλλ’ ὑπὸ γυναικῶν νύκτωρ διασπασθῆναι , πορευόμενον ἀωρὶ πρὸς Κρατερὸν τὸν ἐρώμενον Ἀρχελάου ( καὶ γὰρ σχεῖν αὐτὸν καὶ περὶ τοὺς τοιούτους ἔρωτας ) , οἱ δέ , πρὸς τὴν γαμετὴν Νικοδίκου τοῦ Ἀρεθουσίου .
5 ἔτη δὲ βιῶναι αὐτὸν οε΄ , καὶ τὰ ὀστᾶ αὐτοῦ ἐν Πέλληι μετακομίσαι τὸν βασιλέα . δράματα δὲ αὐτοῦ κατὰ μέν τινας οε΄ , κατὰ δὲ ἄλλους ϙβ΄ · σώιζονται δὲ οζ΄ . νίκας δὲ ἀνείλετο ε΄ , τὰς μέν δ΄ περιών , τὴν δὲ μίαν μετὰ τὴν τελευτήν , ἐπιδειξαμένου τὸ δρᾶμα τοῦ ἀδελφιδοῦ αὐτοῦ Εὐριπίδου . ἐπεδείξατο δὲ ὅλους ἐνιαυτοὺς κβ΄ , καὶ τελευτᾶι ἐπὶ τῆς ϙκ΄ ὀλυμπιάδος .
5 They say that he lived for 75 years and that the king moved his bones to Pella . Some say that he wrote 75 plays ; others 92 . 77 are extant . He had 5 victories : 4 whilst alive and one posthumous , his nephew Euripides producing the play . He produced plays for a total of 22 years and died in the 93rd Olympiad ( 408/7 - 405/4 BCE ) .
1 Euripides , the son of Mnesarchus or Mnesarchides and Cleito , who , being exiled , lived as resident aliens in Boeotia and then Attica . It is not true that his mother was a vegetable-seller ; indeed , she was from a very noble family , as Philochorus demonstrates . His mother became pregnant at the time of Xerxes’ crossing and he was born on the day the Greeks defeated the Persians .
2 To begin with , he became a painter , then a pupil of Prodicus in rhetoric and of Socrates in ethics and philosophy . He was also a disciple of Anaxagoras the Clazomenian and turned to tragedy after seeing the dangers that Anaxagoras endured on account of the doctrines which he had introduced .
3 His character was sullen ; he never smiled and he fled company . For this reason he was also considered a misogynist . He married nonetheless ; first Choerine , the daughter of Mnesilochus , by whom he had Mnesilochus , Mnesarchides , and Euripides . Having divorced her , he had a second wife , whom he found just as licentious as the first .
4 Having departed from Athens , he went to the court of Archelaus , king of the Macedonians , where he lived , enjoying the greatest honour . He died as a result of a plot by Arribaeus the Macedonian and Crateus the Thessalian , who were poets and envied him . They persuaded a slave of the king , by the name of Lysimachus , whom they paid ten mnas , to unleash on the poet the royal dogs , which he had reared . Some recount that he was dismembered not by dogs but by women at night , whilst making his way early to the house of Craterus , Archelaus’ lover ( for they say that he was also inclined to this kind of love ) ; others say that he was making his way to the wife of Nicodicus of Arethusa .
5 They say that he lived for 75 years and that the king moved his bones to Pella . Some say that he wrote 75 plays ; others 92 . 77 are extant . He had 5 victories : 4 whilst alive and one posthumous , his nephew Euripides producing the play . He produced plays for a total of 22 years and died in the 93rd Olympiad ( 408/7 - 405/4 BCE ) .

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Empedocles, Aetios I 18,2 (Diels-Kranz 31, B 13)

Farnoosh Shamsian /
  • Created on 2018-08-20 08:52:12
  • Translated by Sharafedin Khorasani
  • Aligned by Farnoosh Shamsian
Translated directly from Ancient Greek to Persian
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
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Borges y yo

Alfred /
  • Created on 2018-07-30 14:38:07
  • Modified on 2018-07-30 14:38:15
  • Translated by Ilan Stavans
  • Aligned by Alfred
Español
English
Al otro , a Borges , es a quien le ocurren las cosas . Yo camino por Buenos Aires y me demoro , acaso ya mecánicamente , para mirar el arco de un zaguán y la puerta cancel ; de Borges tengo noticias por el correo y veo su nombre en una terna de profesores o en un diccionario biográfico . Me gustan los relojes de arena , los mapas , la tipografía del siglo xviii , las etimologías , el sabor del café y la prosa de Stevenson ; el otro comparte esas preferencias , pero de un modo vanidoso que las convierte en atributos de un actor . Seria exagerado afirmar que nuestra relación es hostil ; yo vivo , yo me dejo vivir , para que Borges pueda tramar su literatura y esa literatura me justifica . Nada me cuesta confesar que ha logrado ciertas páginas válidas , pero esas páginas no me pueden salvar , quizá porque lo bueno ya no es de nadie , ni siquiera del otro , sino del lenguaje o la tradición . Por lo demás , yo estoy destinado a perderme , definitivamente , y sólo algún instante de mi podrá sobrevivir en el otro . Poco a poco voy cediéndole todo , aunque me consta su perversa costumbre de falsear y magnificar .

Spinoza entendió que todas las cosas quieren perseverar en su ser ; la piedra eternamente quiere ser piedra y el tigre un tigre . Yo he de quedar en Borges , no en ( si es que alguien soy ) , pero me reconozco menos en sus libros que en muchos otros o que en el laborioso rasgueo de una guitarra . Hace años yo traté de librarme de él y pasé de las mitologías del arrabal a los juegos con el tiempo y con lo infinito , pero esos juegos son de Borges ahora y tendré que idear otras cosas . Así mi vida es una fuga y todo lo pierdo y todo es del olvido , o del otro .

No cuál de los dos escribe esta página .
The other one , Borges , is to whom things happen . I walk through Buenos Aires , stop , maybe a bit mechanically , to look at the arch of an entrance way and a grillwork door ; I have news from Borges by mail or when I see his name in a list of professors or in a biographical dictionary . I like hourglasses , maps , 18th-century typography , the taste of coffee , and Stevenson’s prose ; the other shares those preferences but with a vanity that turns them into an actor’s attributes . It would be an exaggeration to affirm that our relationship is hostile ; I live , I let myself live , so that Borges can plot his literature and that literature justifies me . It doesn’t cost me anything to confess he has achieved a few valid pages , but those pages can’t save me , perhaps because what’s good no longer belongs to anyone , not even to the other , but to language and traditions . In any case , I’m destined to be lost , definitively , and just some instant of me will survive in the other . Little by little I cede everything , even though I’m aware of his perverse tendency to falsify and pontificate . Spinoza understood that all things want to be preserved in their being : the stone eternally wants to be a stone and the tiger a tiger . I shall remain in Borges , not in myself ( if I am someone ) , but I recognize myself less in his books than in many others and in the laborious strumming of a guitar . Years ago I tried freeing myself from him and went from the mythologies of the arrabal to the games with time and the infinite , but those games are Borges’ now and I shall come up with other things . Thus my life is a flight and I lose everything and everything belongs to oblivion , or to the other . I don’t know which of the two writes this page .

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Vita di Eschilo (paragrafi 7;9; 14-16)

cristiana caserta / La Grecia delle città / Aristotele: ethos, pathos, logos
  • Created on 2018-07-30 11:33:03
  • Modified on 2018-07-30 11:33:30
  • Translated by Cristiana Caserta
  • Aligned by cristiana caserta
la drammaturgia di Eschilo nella Vita
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
italiano
ταῖς τε γὰρ ὄψεσι καὶ τοῖς μύθοις πρὸς ἔκλπληξιν τερατώδη μᾶλλον πρὸς ἀπάτην κέχρηται . ( )
9 τινὲς δέ φασιν ἐν τῆι ἐπιδείξει τῶν Εὐμενίδων σποράδην εἰσαγαγόντα τὸν χορὸν τοσοῦτον ἐκπλῆξαι τὸν δῆμον ὡς τὰ μὲν νήπια ἐκψῦξαι , τὰ δὲ ἔμβρυα ἐξαμβλωθῆναι ( )
14 πρῶτος Αἰσχύλος πάθεσι γεννικωτάτοις τὴν τραγωιδίαν ηὔξησεν τήν τε σκηνὴν ἐκόσμησεν καὶ τὴν ὄψιν τῶν θεωμένων κατέπληξεν τῆι λαμπρότητι , γραφαῖς καὶ μηχαναῖς , βωμοῖς τε καὶ τάφοις , σάλπιγξιν , εἰδώλοις , Ἐρινύσι , τούς τε ὑποκριτὰς χειρῖσι σκεπάσας καὶ τῶι σύρματι ἐξογκώσας μείζοσί τε τοῖς κοθόρνοις μετεωρίσας .
15 ἐχρήσατο δὲ ὑποκριτῆι πρώτωι μὲν Κλεάνδρωι , ἔπειτα καὶ τὸν δεύτερον αὐτῶι προσῆψε Μυννίσκον τὸν Χαλκιδέα · τὸν δὲ τρίτον ὑποκριτὴν αὐτὸς ἐξεῦρεν , ὡς δὲ Δικαίαρχος Μεσσήνιος , Σοφοκλῆς .
16 τὸ δὲ ἁπλοῦν τῆς δραματοποιίας εἰ μέν τις πρὸς τοὺς μετ’ αὐτὸν λογίζοιτο , φαῦλον ἂν ἐκλαμβάνοι καὶ ἀπραγμάτευτον , εἰ δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνωτέρω , θαυμάσειε τῆς ἐπινοίας τὸν ποιητὴν καὶ τῆς εὑρέσεως .

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Vita di Eschilo, parte II

/ Vita di Eschilo
  • Created on 2018-07-27 08:40:10
  • Translated by Translation by S. Burges Watson, Living Poets, (Durham, 2014)
  • Aligned by
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English
καὶ σφόδρα τῶι τε τυράννωι Ἱέρωνι καὶ τοῖς Γελώιοις τιμηθεὶς ἐπιζήσας τρίτον ἔτος γηραιὸς ἐτελεύτα τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον · ἀετὸς γὰρ χελώνην ἁρπάσας , ὡς ἐγκρατὴς γενέσθαι τῆς ἄγρας οὐκ ἴσχυεν , ἀφίησι κατὰ πετρῶν αὐτὴν συνθλάσσων τὸ δέρμα · δὲ ἐνεχθεῖσα κατὰ τοῦ ποιητοῦ φονεύει αὐτόν . χρηστηριασθεὶς δὲ ἦν , " οὐράνιόν σε βέλος κατακτενεῖ . "

11 ἀποθανόντα δὲ Γελῶιοι πολυτελῶς ἐν τοῖς δημοσίοις μνήμασι θάψαντες ἐτίμησαν μεγαλοπρεπῶς , ἐπιγράψαντες οὕτω ·

Αἰσχύλον Εὐφορίωνος Ἀθηναῖον τόδε κεύθει
μνῆμα καταφθίμενον πυροφόροιο Γέλας ·
ἀλκὴν δ’ εὐδόκιμον Μαραθώνιον ἄλσος ἂν
[ εἴποι
καὶ βαθυχαιτήεις Μῆδος ἐπιστάμενος .

εἰς τὸ μνῆμα δὲ φοιτῶντες ὅσοις ἐν τραγωιδίαις ἦν βίος ἐνήγιζόν τε καὶ τὰ δράματα ὑπεκρίνοντο .

12 Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ τοσοῦτον ἠγάπησαν Αἰσχύλον ὡς ψηφίσασθαι μετὰ < τὸν > θάνατον αὐτοῦ τὸν βουλόμενον διδάσκειν τὰ Αἰσχύλου χορὸν λαμβάνειν .

13 ἐβίω δὲ ἔτη ξγ΄ , ἐν οἷς ἐποίησεν δράματα ο΄ καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις σατυρικὰ ἀμφὶ τὰ †ε΄† . νίκας δὲ τὰς πάσας εἴληφε τρεισκαίδεκα · οὐκ ὀλίγας δὲ μετὰ τελευτὴν νίκας ἀπηνέγκατο .

14 πρῶτος Αἰσχύλος πάθεσι γεννικωτάτοις τὴν τραγωιδίαν ηὔξησεν τήν τε σκηνὴν ἐκόσμησεν καὶ τὴν ὄψιν τῶν θεωμένων κατέπληξεν τῆι λαμπρότητι , γραφαῖς καὶ μηχαναῖς , βωμοῖς τε καὶ τάφοις , σάλπιγξιν , εἰδώλοις , Ἐρινύσι , τούς τε ὑποκριτὰς χειρῖσι σκεπάσας καὶ τῶι σύρματι ἐξογκώσας μείζοσί τε τοῖς κοθόρνοις μετεωρίσας .

15 ἐχρήσατο δὲ ὑποκριτῆι πρώτωι μὲν Κλεάνδρωι , ἔπειτα καὶ τὸν δεύτερον αὐτῶι προσῆψε Μυννίσκον τὸν Χαλκιδέα · τὸν δὲ τρίτον ὑποκριτὴν αὐτὸς ἐξεῦρεν , ὡς δὲ Δικαίαρχος Μεσσήνιος , Σοφοκλῆς .

16 τὸ δὲ ἁπλοῦν τῆς δραματοποιίας εἰ μέν τις πρὸς τοὺς μετ’ αὐτὸν λογίζοιτο , φαῦλον ἂν ἐκλαμβάνοι καὶ ἀπραγμάτευτον , εἰ δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνωτέρω , θαυμάσειε τῆς ἐπινοίας τὸν ποιητὴν καὶ τῆς εὑρέσεως . ὅτωι δὲ δοκεῖ τελεώτερος τραγωιδίας ποιητὴς Σοφοκλῆς γεγονέναι , ὀρθῶς μὲν δοκεῖ , λογιζέσθω δὲ ὅτι πολλῶι χαλεπώτερον ἦν ἐπὶ Θέσπιδι , Φρυνίχωι τε καὶ Χοιρίλωι εἰς τοσόνδε μεγέθους τὴν τραγωιδίαν προαγαγεῖν ἐπὶ Ἀισχύλωι εἰσιόντα εἰς τὴν Σοφοκλέους ἐλθεῖν τελειότητα .

17 ἐπιγέγραπται τῶι τάφωι αὐτοῦ ·

αἰετοῦ ἐξ ὀνύχων βρέγμα τυπεὶς ἔθανον .
18 φασὶν ὑπὸ Ἱέρωνος ἀξιωθέντα ἀναδιδάξαι τοὺς Πέρσας ἐν Σικελίαι καὶ λίαν εὐδοκιμεῖν .
Having been greatly honored by the tyrant Hieron and the citizens of Gela , he lived a further two years and died an old man in the following way : an eagle had seized a tortoise , but was not strong enough to break open its prey , so dropped it on the rocks to crush its shell . But the tortoise fell on the poet’s head and killed him . In fact , it had been prophesied to him : ‘a heavenly missile will kill you .

11 After his death , the citizens of Gela gave him a public burial and honoured him magnificently by writing the following epitaph :

This memorial holds Aeschylus the Athenian , son of Euphorion , who died in grain-bearing Gela . The grove of Marathon could speak of his famous courage and the Mede with thick long hair who knows of it .
And whoever was professionally involved in tragedy , when they visited his memorial , would offer sacrifices and declaim his dramas .

12 But the Athenians loved Aeschylus so much that they voted after his death that anyone who wished to put on the plays of Aeschylus would receive a chorus .

13 He lived for sixty three years , during which he put on seventy dramas and additionally around †five† satyr plays . In total , he was victorious thirteen times . He also won quite a few victories after his death .

14 Aeschylus was the first to augment tragedy with the noblest sufferings and he decorated the stage-building and astounded the spectators’ gaze with splendour , paintings and machines , altars and tombs , trumpets , ghosts and Erinyes , and he gave the actors long sleeves , increasing their size with long robes and raising them up on bigger boots .

15 He used Cleandrus as his first actor , then he added a second actor , Mynniscus the Chalcidean . The third actor he himself introduced , although Dichaearchus of Messene says that it was Sophocles .

16 With regard to the simplicity of his dramatic composition , if one were to judge him in relation to the playwrights who succeeded him , one would find him unsophisticated and lacking elaboration , but if one were to judge him in relation to those who preceded him , one would marvel at the poet’s ingenuity and inventiveness . Anyone who thinks that Sophocles was the more perfect tragic poet , is right to do so , but should consider that it was far more difficult for a playwright who succeeded Thespis , Phrynichus and Choerilus to bring tragedy to such greatness than for a successor of Aeschylus to reach even the perfection of Sophocles .

17 On his tomb has been inscribed :

I died , struck on the forehead by a missile from an eagle’s claws .
18 They say that being esteemed by Hieron , he re-produced the Persians in Sicily to great acclaim

( 81 ) 22% GRC
( 281 ) 78% GRC - ENG

( 397 ) 79% GRC - ENG
( 105 ) 21% ENG

Saffo fr. 31 V

cristiana caserta / Saffo fr. 31 V
  • Created on 2018-07-26 12:11:54
  • Modified on 2018-07-26 15:55:12
  • Translated by Cristiana Caserta
  • Aligned by cristiana caserta
Ἑλληνική
Ἑλληνική
italiano
Φαίνεταί μοι κῆνος ἴσος θέοισιν
ἔμμεν’ ὤνηρ , ὄττις ἐνάντιός τοι
ἰσδάνει καὶ πλάσιον ἆδυ φωνεί-
σας ὐπακούει
καὶ γελαίσας ἰμέροεν , τό μ’ μὰν
καρδίαν ἐν στήθεσιν ἐπτόαισεν ,
ὠς γὰρ ‹ἔς› σ’ ἴδω βρόχε’ ὤς με φώνη-
σ’ οὐδὲν ἔτ’ εἴκει ,
ἀλλὰ †κὰμ† μὲν γλῶσσα †ἔαγε† , λέπτον
δ’ αὔτικα χρῷ πῦρ ὐπαδεδρόμακεν ,
ὀππάτεσσι δ’ οὐδέν ὄρημμ’ , ἐπιβρό-
μεισι δ’ ἄκουαι ,
†έκαδε†μ’ ἴδρως κακχέεται τρόμος δὲ
παῖσαν ἄγρει , χλωροτέρα δὲ ποίας
ἔμμι , τεθνάκην δ’ ὀλίγω ’πιδεύης
φαίνομ’ ἔμ’ αὔτᾳ .
ἀλλὰ πὰν τόλματον ἐπεί καὶ πένητα
Φαίνεταί μοι ἐκεῖνος ἴσος θέοισιν
εἶναι ἀνήρ , ὄστις ἐνάντιός σοι
ἱζάνει καὶ πλησίον ἡδὺ φωνού-
σης ὑπακούει
καὶ γελώσης ἱμέροεν , τό μ’ μὰν
καρδίαν ἐν στήθεσιν ἐπτοίησεν ,
ὠς γὰρ ‹ἔς› σ’ ἴδω βραχέα ὤς με φωνάς
οὐδὲν ἔτ’ εἴκει ,
ἀλλὰ †κὰτ† μὲν γλῶσσα †ἔαγε† , λέπτον
δ’ αὐτίκα χρωτὶ πῦρ ὑποδεδράμηκεν ,
ὄμμασι δ’ οὐδέν ὁράω , ἐπιβρό-
μουσι δ’ ἄκοαι ,
δέ μοι ἴδρως καταχεῖται τρόμος δὲ
πᾶσαν ἀγρεῖ , χλωροτέρα δὲ ποίας
εἰμί , τεθνηκέναι δ’ ὀλίγου ἐπιδευής
φαίνομ’ ἐμαυτῇ .
ἀλλὰ πὰν τόλματον ἐπεί καὶ πένητα
Mi sembra che sia pari agli dèi
quell ' uomo che di fronte a te
siede e da vicino te , che dolcemente parli
ascolta attento

e sorridi amabilmente questo davvero
il cuore nel petto mi sbigottisce
come , anche per poco , ti guardo ecco che
non riesco più a parlare

ma la lingua è spezzata , un fuoco sottile
sotto la pelle si è diffuso rapidamente ,
con gli occhi nulla vedo ,
le orecchie ronzano

su di me il sudore si spande e un tremito
tutta mi cattura , più verde dell ' erba
sono , poco lontana dall ' essere morta
sembro a me stessa .

Ma tutto si può sopportare , poiché anche il povero

( 21 ) 22% GRC
( 76 ) 78% GRC - GRC

( 78 ) 80% GRC - GRC
( 20 ) 20% GRC

( 78 ) 80% GRC - GRC
( 20 ) 20% GRC