Ray Kress

University of the Sciences in Philadelphia

Timaeus 37a-e

Ray Kress /
  • Created on 2021-03-16 16:51:50
  • Modified on 2021-03-22 21:52:39
  • Aligned by Ray Kress
And whereas the body of the Heaven is visible , the Soul is herself invisible but partakes in reasoning and in harmony , [ 37a ] having come into existence by the agency of the best of things intelligible and ever-existing as the best of things generated . Inasmuch , then , as she is a compound , blended of the natures of the Same and the Other and Being , these three portions , and is proportionately divided and bound together , and revolves back upon herself , whenever she touches anything which has its substance dispersed or anything which has its substance undivided she is moved throughout her whole being and announces what the object is identical with [ 37b ] and from what it is different , and in what relation , where and how and when , it comes about that each thing exists and is acted upon by others both in the sphere of the Becoming and in that of the ever-uniform . And her announcement , being identically true concerning both the Other and the Same , is borne through the self-moved without speech or sound ; and whenever it is concerned with the sensible , and the circle of the Other moving in straight course proclaims it to the whole of its Soul , opinions and beliefs arise which are firm and true ; and again , when it is concerned with the rational , [ 37c ] and the circle of the Same , spinning truly , declares the facts , reason and knowledge of necessity result . But should anyone assert that the substance in which these two states arise is something other than Soul , his assertion will be anything rather than the truth .
And when the Father that engendered it perceived it in motion and alive , a thing of joy to the eternal gods , He too rejoiced1 ; and being well-pleased He designed to make it resemble its Model [ 37d ] still more closely . Accordingly , seeing that that Model is an eternal Living Creature , He set about making this Universe , so far as He could , of a like kind . But inasmuch as the nature of the Living Creature was eternal , this quality it was impossible to attach in its entirety to what is generated ; wherefore He planned to make a movable image of Eternity , and , as He set in order the Heaven , of that Eternity which abides in unity He made an eternal image , moving according to number , even that which we have named Time . [ 37e ] For simultaneously with the construction of the Heaven He contrived the production of days and nights and months and years , which existed not before the Heaven came into being . And these are all portions of Time ; even as " Was " and " Shall be " are generated forms of Time , although we apply them wrongly , without noticing , to Eternal Being .
καὶ τὸ μὲν δὴ σῶμα ὁρατὸν οὐρανοῦ γέγονεν , αὐτὴ δὲ ἀόρατος μέν , λογισμοῦ δὲ μετέχουσα καὶ [ 37α ] ἁρμονίας ψυχή , τῶν νοητῶν ἀεί τε ὄντων ὑπὸ τοῦ ἀρίστου ἀρίστη γενομένη τῶν γεννηθέντων . ἅτε οὖν ἐκ τῆς ταὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς θατέρου φύσεως ἔκ τε οὐσίας τριῶν τούτων συγκραθεῖσα μοιρῶν , καὶ ἀνὰ λόγον μερισθεῖσα καὶ συνδεθεῖσα , αὐτή τε ἀνακυκλουμένη πρὸς αὑτήν , ὅταν οὐσίαν σκεδαστὴν ἔχοντός τινος ἐφάπτηται καὶ ὅταν ἀμέριστον , λέγει κινουμένη διὰ πάσης ἑαυτῆς ὅτῳ τ᾽ ἄν τι ταὐτὸν καὶ ὅτου ἂν [ 37β ] ἕτερον , πρὸς ὅτι τε μάλιστα καὶ ὅπῃ καὶ ὅπως καὶ ὁπότε συμβαίνει κατὰ τὰ γιγνόμενά τε πρὸς ἕκαστον ἕκαστα εἶναι καὶ πάσχειν καὶ πρὸς τὰ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχοντα ἀεί . λόγος δὲ κατὰ ταὐτὸν ἀληθὴς γιγνόμενος περί τε θάτερον ὂν καὶ περὶ τὸ ταὐτόν , ἐν τῷ κινουμένῳ ὑφ᾽ αὑτοῦ φερόμενος ἄνευ φθόγγου καὶ ἠχῆς , ὅταν μὲν περὶ τὸ αἰσθητὸν γίγνηται καὶ τοῦ θατέρου κύκλος ὀρθὸς ἰὼν εἰς πᾶσαν αὐτοῦ τὴν ψυχὴν διαγγείλῃ , δόξαι καὶ πίστεις γίγνονται βέβαιοι καὶ ἀληθεῖς , [ 37ξ ] ὅταν δὲ αὖ περὶ τὸ λογιστικὸν καὶ τοῦ ταὐτοῦ κύκλος εὔτροχος ὢν αὐτὰ μηνύσῃ , νοῦς ἐπιστήμη τε ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀποτελεῖται : τούτω δὲ ἐν τῶν ὄντων ἐγγίγνεσθον , ἄν ποτέ τις αὐτὸ ἄλλο πλὴν ψυχὴν εἴπῃ , πᾶν μᾶλλον τἀληθὲς ἐρεῖ .
ὡς δὲ κινηθὲν αὐτὸ καὶ ζῶν ἐνόησεν τῶν ἀιδίων θεῶν γεγονὸς ἄγαλμα γεννήσας πατήρ , ἠγάσθη τε καὶ εὐφρανθεὶς ἔτι δὴ μᾶλλον ὅμοιον πρὸς τὸ παράδειγμα ἐπενόησεν ἀπεργάσασθαι . [ 37δ ] καθάπερ οὖν αὐτὸ τυγχάνει ζῷον ἀίδιον ὄν , καὶ τόδε τὸ πᾶν οὕτως εἰς δύναμιν ἐπεχείρησε τοιοῦτον ἀποτελεῖν . μὲν οὖν τοῦ ζῴου φύσις ἐτύγχανεν οὖσα αἰώνιος , καὶ τοῦτο μὲν δὴ τῷ γεννητῷ παντελῶς προσάπτειν οὐκ ἦν δυνατόν : εἰκὼ δ᾽ ἐπενόει κινητόν τινα αἰῶνος ποιῆσαι , καὶ διακοσμῶν ἅμα οὐρανὸν ποιεῖ μένοντος αἰῶνος ἐν ἑνὶ κατ᾽ ἀριθμὸν ἰοῦσαν αἰώνιον εἰκόνα , τοῦτον ὃν δὴ χρόνον ὠνομάκαμεν . [ 37ε ] ἡμέρας γὰρ καὶ νύκτας καὶ μῆνας καὶ ἐνιαυτούς , οὐκ ὄντας πρὶν οὐρανὸν γενέσθαι , τότε ἅμα ἐκείνῳ συνισταμένῳ τὴν γένεσιν αὐτῶν μηχανᾶται : ταῦτα δὲ πάντα μέρη χρόνου , καὶ τό τ᾽ ἦν τό τ᾽ ἔσται χρόνου γεγονότα εἴδη , δὴ φέροντες λανθάνομεν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀίδιον οὐσίαν οὐκ ὀρθῶς .
Et corpus quidem caeli aspectabile effectum est , animus autem ocu- lorum effugit optutum . Est autem unus ex omnibus rationis concentionisque , quae ἁρμονία Graece , sem- piternarum rerum et sub intellegentiam cadentium compos et particeps , quo nihil est ab optimo et prae- stantissimo genitore melius procreatum ; quippe qui ex eadem iunctus alteraque natura adiuncta materia tem- peratione trium partium proportione conpactus , se ipse conversans , cum materiam mutabilem arripuit et cum rursus individuam atque simplicem , per se omnis movetur discernitque , quid sit eiusdem generis , quid alterius , et cetera diiudicat , quid cuique rei sit ma- xime aptum , quid quoque loco aut modo aut tempore contingat , quaeque distinctio sit inter ea , quae gignantur , et ea , quae sint semper eadem . Ratio autem vera , quae versatur in iis , quae sunt semper eadem , et in iis , quae mutantur , cum in eodem et in altero movetur ipsa per sese sine voce et sine ullo sono , cum eam partem attingit , qua sensus cieri potest , et orbis illius generis alterius inmutatus et rectus omnia animo mentique denuntiat , tum opiniones adsensio- nesque firmae veraeque gignuntur ; cum autem in illis rebus vertitur , quae manentes semper eadem non sensu , sed intellegentia continentur ratione igitur et mente divina ad originem temporis curricu- lum inventum est solis et lunae .

( 463 ) 90% ENG
( 52 ) 10% ENG - GRC

( 44 ) 11% ENG - GRC
( 344 ) 89% GRC

( 44 ) 11% ENG - GRC
( 344 ) 89% GRC