Charles Ewald

Tufts University

On Head Wounds

Charles Ewald /
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
Περὶ δὲ πρίσιος , ὅταν καταλάβῃ ἀνάγκη πρίσαι ἄνθρωπον , ὧδε γινώσκειν · ἢν ἐξ ἀρχῆς λαβὼν τὸ ἴημαπρίῃς , οὐ χρὴ ἐκπρίειν τὸ ὀστέον πρὸς τὴν μήνιγγα αὐτίκα · οὐγὰρ συμφέρει τὴν μήνιγγα ψιλὴν εἶναι τοῦ ὀστέου ἐπὶ πουλὺνχρόνον κακοπαθοῦσαν , ἀλλὰ τελευτῶσά πη καὶ διεμύδησεν . Ἔστι δὲ καὶἕτερος κίνδυνος , ἢν αὐτίκα ἀφαιρέῃς πρὸς τὴν μήνιγγα ἐκπρίσαςτὸ ὀστέον , τρῶσαι ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ τῷ πρίονι τὴν μήνιγγα . Ἀλλὰχρὴ πρίοντα ,
ἐπειδὰν ὀλίγον πάνυ δέῃ διαπεπρίσθαι , καὶ ἤδηκινέηται τὸ ὀστέον , παύσασθαι πρίοντα , καὶ ἐᾷν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτόματονἀποστῆναι τὸ ὀστέον . Ἐν γὰρ τῷ διαπριωτῷ δστέῳ καὶ ἐπιλελειμμένῳτῆς πρίσιος οὐκ ἂν ἐπιγένοιτο κακὸν οὐδέν · λεπτὸν γὰρ τὸλειπόμενον ἤδη γίνεται . Τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ ἰῆσθαι χρὴ , ὡς ἂν δοκέῃ ξυμφέρειντῷ ἕλκεϊ . Πρίοντα δὲ χρὴ πυκινὰ ἐξαιρέειν τὸν πρίονα τῆςθερμασίης εἵνεκα τοῦ ὀστέου , καὶ ὕδατι ψυχρῷἐναποβάπτειν . Θερμαινόμενος γὰρ ὑπὸ τῆς περιόδου πρίων , καὶ τὸ ὀστέονἐκθερμαίνων καὶ ἀναξηραίνων , κατακαίει , καὶ μεῖζον ποιέειἀφίστασθαι τὸ ὀστέον τὸ περιέχον τὴν πρίσιν , ὅσον μέλλειἀφίστασθαι . Καὶ ἢν αὐτίκα βούλῃ ἐκπρίσαι τὸ πρὸς τὴν μήνιγγα , ἔπειταἀφελέειν τὸ ὀστέον , ὡσαύτως χρὴ πυκινά τε ἐξαιρέειν τὸν πρίονα , καὶ ἐναποβάπτειν τῷ ὕδατι τῷ ψυχρῷ . Ἢν δὲ μὴ ἐξ ἀρχῆς λαμβάνῃςτὸ ἴημα , ἀλλὰ παρ ἄλλου παραδέχῃ ὐστερίζων τῆς ἰήσιος , πρίονιχρὴ χαρακτῷ
ἐκπρίειν μὲν αὐτίκα τὸ ὀστέον πρὸς τὴνμήνιγγα , θαμινὰ δὲ ἐξαιρεῦντα τὸν πρίονα σκοπεῖσθαι καὶ ἄλλως καὶ τῇ μήλῃπέριξ κατὰ τὴν ὁδὸν τοῦ πρίονος . Καὶ γὰρ πουλὺ θᾶσσονδιαπρίεται τὸ ὀστέον , ἢν ὑπόπυόν τε ἐήν ἤδη καὶ διάπυον πρίῃς , καὶπολλάκις τυγχάνει ἐπιπόλαιον ἐὸν τὸ ὀστέον , ἄλλως τε καὶ ἢνταύτῃ τῆς κεφαλῆς τὸ τρῶμα , τυγχάνει λεπτότερον ἐὸν τὸ ὀστέονἢ παχύτερον . Ἀλλὰ φυλάσσεσθαι χρὴ , ὡς μὴ λάθῃς προσβαλὼν τὸνπρίονα , ἀλλ ὅπη δοκέῃ παχύτατον εἶναι τὸ ὀστέον , ἐς τοῦτο αἰεὶἐνστηρίζειν τὸν πρίονα , θαμινὰ σκοπούμενος , καὶ πειρᾶσθαιἀνακινέων τὸ ὀστέον

ἀναβάλλειν , ἀφελὼν δὲ , τὰ λοιπὰ ἰητρεύειν ὡςἂν δοκέῃ ξυμφέρειν τῷ ἕλκεϊ . Καὶ ἢν , ἐξ ἀρχῆς λαβὼν τὸ ἴημα , αὐτίκα βούλῃ ἐκπρίσας τὸ ὀστέον ἀφελεῖν ἀπὸ τῆς μήνιγγος , ὡσαύτωςχρὴ πυκινά τε σκοπεῖσθαι τῇ μήλῃ τὴν περίοδον τοῦ πρίονος , καὶ ἐς τὸ παχύτατον ἀεὶ τοῦ ὀστέου τὸν πρίονα ἐνστηρίζειν , καὶἀνακινέων βούλεσθαι ἀφελέειν τὸ ὀστέον . Ἢν δὲ τρυπάνῳ χρῇ , πρὸςδὲ τὴν μήνιγγα μὴ ἀφικνέεσθαι , ἢν ἐξ ἀρχῆς λαμβάνων τὸ ἴηματρυπᾷς , ἀλλ ἐπιλιπεῖν τοῦ ὀστέου λεπτὸν , ὥσπερ καὶ ἐν τῇπρίσει γέγραπται .
With regard to trepanning , when there is a necessity for it , the following particulars should be known . If you have had the management of the case from the first , you must not at once saw the bone down to the meninx ; for it is not proper that the membrane should be laid bare and exposed to injuries for a length of time , as in the end it may become fungous . And there is another danger if you saw the bone down to the meninx and remove it at once , lest in the act of sawing you should wound the meninx . But in trepanning , when only a very little of the bone remains to be sawed through , and the bone can be moved , [ p . 159 ] you must desist from sawing , and leave the bone to fall out of itself . 1 For to a bone not sawed through , and where a portion is left of the sawing , no mischief can happen ; for the portion now left is sufficiently thin . In other respects you must conduct the treatment as may appear suitable to the wound . And in trepanning you must frequently remove the trepan , on account of the heat in the bone , and plunge it in cold water . For the trepan being heated by running round , and heating and drying the bone , burns it and makes a larger piece of bone around the sawing to drop off , than would otherwise do . And if you wish to saw at once down to the membrane , and then remove the bone , you must also , in like manner , frequently take out the trepan and dip it in cold water . But if you have not charge of the treatment from the first , but undertake it from another after a time , you must saw the bone at once down to the meninx with a serrated trepan , and in doing so must frequently take out the trepan and examine with a sound ( specillum ) , and otherwise along the tract of the instrument . For the bone is much sooner sawn through , provided there be matter below it and in it , and it often happens that the bone is more superficial , especially if the wound is situated in that part of the head where the bone is rather thinner than in other parts . But you must take care where you apply the trepan , and see that you do so only where it appears to be particularly thick , and having fixed the instrument there , that you frequently make examinations and endeavor by moving the bone to bring it up . Having removed it , you must apply the other suitable remedies to the wound . And if , when you have the management of the treatment from the first , you wish to saw through the bone at once , and remove it from the membrane , you must , in like manner , examine the tract of the instrument frequently with the sound , [ p . 160 ] and see that it is fixed on the thickest part of the bone , and endeavor to remove the bone by moving it about . But if you use a perforator ( trepan ? ) , you must not penetrate to the membrane , if you operate on a case which you have had the charge of from the first , but must leave a thin scale of bone , as described in the process of sawing .

( 395 ) 97% GRC
( 14 ) 3% GRC - ENG

( 16 ) 3% GRC - ENG
( 606 ) 97% ENG

On Head Wounds First Third

Charles Ewald /
Ἑλληνική Transliterate

( 54 ) 50% GRC
( 55 ) 50% GRC - ENG

( 77 ) 51% GRC - ENG
( 73 ) 49% ENG

Xenophon Anabasis 2.6.7-9

Charles Ewald /
  • Created on 2023-12-16 22:37:23
  • Modified on 2023-12-18 03:48:27
  • Aligned by Charles Ewald
Ἑλληνική Transliterate

( 37 ) 32% GRC
( 79 ) 68% GRC - ENG

( 114 ) 63% GRC - ENG
( 67 ) 37% ENG

Xenophon Anabasis 2.6.7-9 My Translation

Charles Ewald /
Ἑλληνική Transliterate

( 21 ) 18% GRC
( 97 ) 82% GRC - ENG

( 131 ) 86% GRC - ENG
( 22 ) 14% ENG