Thucydides I.1

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-06 19:57:22
  • Modified on 2019-01-22 15:46:26
  • Translated by JEREMY MYNOTT
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
History of the Peloponnesian War
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English

( 10 ) 8% GRC
( 109 ) 92% GRC - ENG

( 192 ) 91% GRC - ENG
( 18 ) 9% ENG

Thucydides I.2

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-06 20:42:13
  • Modified on 2019-01-22 15:46:33
  • Translated by JEREMY MYNOTT
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
History of the Peloponnesian War
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English
φαίνεται γὰρ νῦν Ἑλλὰς καλουμένη οὐ πάλαι βεβαίως οἰκουμένη , ἀλλὰ μεταναστάσεις τε οὖσαι τὰ πρότερα καὶ ῥᾳδίως ἕκαστοι τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀπολείποντες βιαζόμενοι ὑπό τινων αἰεὶ πλειόνων . τῆς γὰρ ἐμπορίας οὐκ οὔσης , οὐδ ' ἐπιμειγνύντες ἀδεῶς ἀλλήλοις οὔτε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε διὰ θαλάσσης , νεμόμενοί τε τὰ αὑτῶν ἕκαστοι ὅσον ἀποζῆν καὶ περιουσίαν χρημάτων οὐκ ἔχοντες οὐδὲ γῆν φυτεύοντες , ἄδηλον ὂν ὁπότε τις ἐπελθὼν καὶ ἀτειχίστων ἅμα ὄντων ἄλλος ἀφαιρήσεται , τῆς τε καθ ' ἡμέραν ἀναγκαίου τροφῆς πανταχοῦ ἂν ἡγούμενοι ἐπικρατεῖν , οὐ χαλεπῶς ἀπανίσταντο , καὶ δι ' αὐτὸ οὔτε μεγέθει πόλεων ἴσχυον οὔτε τῇ ἄλλῃ παρασκευῇ . μάλιστα δὲ τῆς γῆς ἀρίστη αἰεὶ τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν οἰκητόρων εἶχεν , τε νῦν Θεσσαλία καλουμένη καὶ Βοιωτία Πελοποννήσου τε τὰ πολλὰ πλὴν Ἀρκαδίας , τῆς τε ἄλλης ὅσα ἦν κράτιστα . διὰ γὰρ ἀρετὴν γῆς αἵ τε δυνάμεις τισὶ μείζους ἐγγιγνόμεναι στάσεις ἐνεποίουν ἐξ ὧν ἐφθείροντο , καὶ ἅμα ὑπὸ ἀλλοφύλων μᾶλλον ἐπεβουλεύοντο . τὴν γοῦν Ἀττικὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον διὰ τὸ λεπτόγεων ἀστασίαστον οὖσαν ἄνθρωποι ᾤκουν οἱ αὐτοὶ αἰεί . καὶ παράδειγμα τόδε τοῦ λόγου οὐκ ἐλάχιστόν ἐστι διὰ τὰς μετοικίας ἐς τὰ ἄλλα μὴ ὁμοίως αὐξηθῆναι · ἐκ γὰρ τῆς ἄλλης Ἑλλάδος οἱ πολέμῳ στάσει ἐκπίπτοντες παρ ' Ἀθηναίους οἱ δυνατώτατοι ὡς βέβαιον ὂν ἀνεχώρουν , καὶ πολῖται γιγνόμενοι εὐθὺς ἀπὸ παλαιοῦ μείζω ἔτι ἐποίησαν πλήθει ἀνθρώπων τὴν πόλιν , ὥστε καὶ ἐς Ἰωνίαν ὕστερον ὡς οὐχ ἱκανῆς οὔσης τῆς Ἀττικῆς ἀποικίας ἐξέπεμψαν .
It is evident that long ago what is now called ‘Hellas’ had no stable settlements ; instead there were various migrations in these early times and each group readily abandoned their own territory whenever forced to do so by those with superior numbers . For there was no commerce and people were insecure about making contact with each other either by land or sea , so they each lived off their own land just at subsistence level and neither produced any surplus goods nor planted the ground , since they had no walls and never knew when some invader might come and rob them . They took the view that they could secure their daily needs for sustenance anywhere , and so were not exercised about uprooting and moving on , with the consequence that they had no cities of any size or other general resources to make them strong . It was always the finest land that was most subject to changes of population : namely , what is now called Thessaly , Boeotia , most of the Peloponnese excluding Arcadia , and the best parts elsewhere . And the quality of the land gave some groups more power than others , and that led to internal conflict , which destroyed them and at the same time encouraged outsiders to have designs on them . Attica , at any rate , has been free of such strife from the earliest times on account of its poor soil and has always been inhabited by the same people . This is a good illustration of my argument that it was because of relocations that other places did not develop in the same way as Attica ; for the most powerful figures from other parts of Greece , who were driven out either by war or internal conflict , resorted to the safety of Athens , and by becoming citizens right from the very earliest times they so increased the city’s population that Attica could not contain them and the Athenians later sent out colonies to occupy Ionia as well .

( 23 ) 9% GRC
( 222 ) 91% GRC - ENG

( 322 ) 92% GRC - ENG
( 29 ) 8% ENG

Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.35)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-11 02:59:57
  • Modified on 2019-01-22 15:46:52
  • Translated by Mário da Gamma Kury & Jeremy Mynott
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
" Muitos dos que me precederam neste lugar fizeram elogios ao legislador que acrescentou um discurso à cerimônia usual nestas circunstâncias , considerando justo celebrar também com palavras os mortos na guerra em seus funerais . A mim , todavia , ter-me-ia parecido suficiente , tratando-se de homens que se mostraram valorosos em atos , manifestar apenas com atos as honras que lhes prestamos - honras como as que hoje presenciastes nesta cerimônia fúnebre oficial - em vez de deixar o reconhecimento do valor de tantos homens na dependência do maior ou menor talento oratório de um homem . É realmente difícil falar com propriedade numa ocasião em que não é possível aquilatar a credibilidade das palavras do orador . O ouvinte bem informado e disposto favoravelmente pensará talvez que não foi feita a devida justiça em face de seus próprios desejos e de seu conhecimento dos fatos , enquanto outro menos informado , ouvindo falar de um feito além de sua própria capacidade , será levado pela inveja a pensar em algum exagero . De fato , elogios a outras pessoas são toleráveis somente até onde cada um se julga capaz de realizar qualquer dos atos cuja menção está ouvindo ; quando vão além disto , provocam a inveja , e com ela a incredulidade . Seja como for , que nossos antepassados julgaram boa esta prática também devo obedecer à lei , e farei o possível para corresponder à expectativa e às opiniões de cada um de vós .
" ’Οἱ μὲν πολλοὶ τῶν ἐνθάδε ἤδη εἰρηκότων ἐπαινοῦσι τὸν
προσθέντα τῷ νόμῳ τὸν λόγον τόνδε , ὡς καλὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐκ
τῶν πολέμων θαπτομένοις ἀγορεύεσθαι αὐτόν . ἐμοὶ δὲ
ἀρκοῦν ἂν ἐδόκει εἶναι ἀνδρῶν ἀγαθῶν ἔργῳ γενομένων 2 . 35 . 1 . 5
ἔργῳ καὶ δηλοῦσθαι τὰς τιμάς , οἷα καὶ νῦν περὶ τὸν τάφον
τόνδε δημοσίᾳ παρασκευασθέντα ὁρᾶτε , καὶ μὴ ἐν ἑνὶ ἀνδρὶ
πολλῶν ἀρετὰς κινδυνεύεσθαι εὖ τε καὶ χεῖρον εἰπόντι 2 . 35 . 2 . 1
πιστευθῆναι . χαλεπὸν γὰρ τὸ μετρίως εἰπεῖν ἐν μόλις καὶ
δόκησις τῆς ἀληθείας βεβαιοῦται . τε γὰρ ξυνειδὼς καὶ
εὔνους ἀκροατὴς τάχ ' ἄν τι ἐνδεεστέρως πρὸς βούλεταί τε
καὶ ἐπίσταται νομίσειε δηλοῦσθαι , τε ἄπειρος ἔστιν καὶ 2 . 35 . 2 . 5
πλεονάζεσθαι , διὰ φθόνον , εἴ τι ὑπὲρ τὴν αὑτοῦ φύσιν ἀκούοι .
μέχρι γὰρ τοῦδε ἀνεκτοὶ οἱ ἔπαινοί εἰσι περὶ ἑτέρων
λεγόμενοι , ἐς ὅσον ἂν καὶ αὐτὸς ἕκαστος οἴηται ἱκανὸς εἶναι
δρᾶσαί τι ὧν ἤκουσεν · τῷ δὲ ὑπερβάλλοντι αὐτῶν φθονοῦντες 2 . 35 . 3 . 1
ἤδη καὶ ἀπιστοῦσιν . ἐπειδὴ δὲ τοῖς πάλαι οὕτως ἐδοκιμάσθη
ταῦτα καλῶς ἔχειν , χρὴ καὶ ἐμὲ ἑπόμενον τῷ νόμῳ πειρᾶσθαι
ὑμῶν τῆς ἑκάστου βουλήσεώς τε καὶ δόξης τυχεῖν ὡς ἐπὶ
πλεῖστον . 2 . 36 . 1 . 1
"
‘Most of those who havespoken on this occasion in thepast have praised the man who added this speech to the traditional ceremony , regarding it a fitting public tribute at the burial of our war dead . To me , however , it would seem sufficient that when men have proved their worth in action we should also honour them with action as indeed you see us do today in the provision of this state funeral . Otherwise we risk the good name of many on the persuasive powers of one man , who may speak well or badly . It is difficult for a speaker to strike the right balance when there is not even any firm agreement between different perceptions of the truth . The listener who is close to these events and a friend of the dead may perhaps think that the presentation falls short of what he wants to hear and knows to be the case , while a stranger to the situation may suspect some exaggeration , envious if he hears of feats beyond his own abilities . After all , we can only bear to hear words of praise for others as long as we can each imagine ourselves capable of doing something similar ; anything beyond this prompts resentment , and then actual disbelief . However , since our forebears deemed this the right and proper practice , I too must follow the tradition and try to meet your different wishes and expectations as best I can .

( 23 ) 9% POR
( 230 ) 91% POR - GRC

( 171 ) 76% POR - GRC
( 53 ) 24% GRC

( 171 ) 76% POR - GRC
( 53 ) 24% GRC