Thucydides I.1

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-06 19:57:22
  • Modified on 2018-09-11 02:56:32
  • Translated by JEREMY MYNOTT
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
History of the Peloponnesian War
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English

( 10 ) 8% GRC
( 109 ) 92% GRC - ENG

( 192 ) 91% GRC - ENG
( 18 ) 9% ENG

Thucydides I.2

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-06 20:42:13
  • Modified on 2018-09-11 02:56:42
  • Translated by JEREMY MYNOTT
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
History of the Peloponnesian War
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English
φαίνεται γὰρ νῦν Ἑλλὰς καλουμένη οὐ πάλαι βεβαίως οἰκουμένη , ἀλλὰ μεταναστάσεις τε οὖσαι τὰ πρότερα καὶ ῥᾳδίως ἕκαστοι τὴν ἑαυτῶν ἀπολείποντες βιαζόμενοι ὑπό τινων αἰεὶ πλειόνων . τῆς γὰρ ἐμπορίας οὐκ οὔσης , οὐδ ' ἐπιμειγνύντες ἀδεῶς ἀλλήλοις οὔτε κατὰ γῆν οὔτε διὰ θαλάσσης , νεμόμενοί τε τὰ αὑτῶν ἕκαστοι ὅσον ἀποζῆν καὶ περιουσίαν χρημάτων οὐκ ἔχοντες οὐδὲ γῆν φυτεύοντες , ἄδηλον ὂν ὁπότε τις ἐπελθὼν καὶ ἀτειχίστων ἅμα ὄντων ἄλλος ἀφαιρήσεται , τῆς τε καθ ' ἡμέραν ἀναγκαίου τροφῆς πανταχοῦ ἂν ἡγούμενοι ἐπικρατεῖν , οὐ χαλεπῶς ἀπανίσταντο , καὶ δι ' αὐτὸ οὔτε μεγέθει πόλεων ἴσχυον οὔτε τῇ ἄλλῃ παρασκευῇ . μάλιστα δὲ τῆς γῆς ἀρίστη αἰεὶ τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν οἰκητόρων εἶχεν , τε νῦν Θεσσαλία καλουμένη καὶ Βοιωτία Πελοποννήσου τε τὰ πολλὰ πλὴν Ἀρκαδίας , τῆς τε ἄλλης ὅσα ἦν κράτιστα . διὰ γὰρ ἀρετὴν γῆς αἵ τε δυνάμεις τισὶ μείζους ἐγγιγνόμεναι στάσεις ἐνεποίουν ἐξ ὧν ἐφθείροντο , καὶ ἅμα ὑπὸ ἀλλοφύλων μᾶλλον ἐπεβουλεύοντο . τὴν γοῦν Ἀττικὴν ἐκ τοῦ ἐπὶ πλεῖστον διὰ τὸ λεπτόγεων ἀστασίαστον οὖσαν ἄνθρωποι ᾤκουν οἱ αὐτοὶ αἰεί . καὶ παράδειγμα τόδε τοῦ λόγου οὐκ ἐλάχιστόν ἐστι διὰ τὰς μετοικίας ἐς τὰ ἄλλα μὴ ὁμοίως αὐξηθῆναι · ἐκ γὰρ τῆς ἄλλης Ἑλλάδος οἱ πολέμῳ στάσει ἐκπίπτοντες παρ ' Ἀθηναίους οἱ δυνατώτατοι ὡς βέβαιον ὂν ἀνεχώρουν , καὶ πολῖται γιγνόμενοι εὐθὺς ἀπὸ παλαιοῦ μείζω ἔτι ἐποίησαν πλήθει ἀνθρώπων τὴν πόλιν , ὥστε καὶ ἐς Ἰωνίαν ὕστερον ὡς οὐχ ἱκανῆς οὔσης τῆς Ἀττικῆς ἀποικίας ἐξέπεμψαν .
It is evident that long ago what is now called ‘Hellas’ had no stable settlements ; instead there were various migrations in these early times and each group readily abandoned their own territory whenever forced to do so by those with superior numbers . For there was no commerce and people were insecure about making contact with each other either by land or sea , so they each lived off their own land just at subsistence level and neither produced any surplus goods nor planted the ground , since they had no walls and never knew when some invader might come and rob them . They took the view that they could secure their daily needs for sustenance anywhere , and so were not exercised about uprooting and moving on , with the consequence that they had no cities of any size or other general resources to make them strong . It was always the finest land that was most subject to changes of population : namely , what is now called Thessaly , Boeotia , most of the Peloponnese excluding Arcadia , and the best parts elsewhere . And the quality of the land gave some groups more power than others , and that led to internal conflict , which destroyed them and at the same time encouraged outsiders to have designs on them . Attica , at any rate , has been free of such strife from the earliest times on account of its poor soil and has always been inhabited by the same people . This is a good illustration of my argument that it was because of relocations that other places did not develop in the same way as Attica ; for the most powerful figures from other parts of Greece , who were driven out either by war or internal conflict , resorted to the safety of Athens , and by becoming citizens right from the very earliest times they so increased the city’s population that Attica could not contain them and the Athenians later sent out colonies to occupy Ionia as well .

( 23 ) 9% GRC
( 222 ) 91% GRC - ENG

( 322 ) 92% GRC - ENG
( 29 ) 8% ENG

Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.34)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
34 . No curso do mesmo inverno os atenienses , seguindo um costume de seus antepassados , celebraram a expensas do tesouro os ritos fúnebres dos primeiros concidadãos vítimas desta guerra . A cerimônia consiste no seguinte : os ossos dos defuntos são expostos num catafalco durante três dias , sob um toldo próprio para isto , e os habitantes trazem para os seus mortos as oferendas desejadas ; no dia do funeral ataúdes de cipreste são trazidos em carretas , um para cada tribo , e os ossos de cada um são postos no ataúde de sua tribo ; um ataúde vazio , coberto por um pálio , também é levado em procissão , reservado aos desaparecidos cujos cadáveres não foram encontrados para o sepultamento . Todos os que desejam , cidadãos ou estrangeiros , podem participar da procissão fúnebre , e as mulheres das famílias dos defuntos também comparecem e fazem lamentações ; os ataúdes são postos no mausoléu oficial , situado no subúrbio mais belo da cidade " ; são sempre sepultados os mortos em guerra , à exceção dos que tombaram em Maratona que , por seus méritos excepcionais , foram enterrados no próprio local da batalha . Após o enterro dos restos mortais , um cidadão escolhido pela cidade , considerado o mais qualificado em termos de inteligência e tido na mais alta estima pública , pronuncia um elogio adequado em honra dos defuntos . Depois disso o povo se retira . São assim os funerais e durante toda a guerra , sempre que havia oportunidade , esse costume era observado . No caso presente das primeiras vítimas da guerra , Péricles filho de Xântipos foi escolhido para falar . No momento oportuno ele avançou para o local do mausoléu , subiu à plataforma , bastante alta para que a sua voz fosse ouvida tão longe quanto possível pela multidão , e disse o seguinte :
" Ἐν δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ χειμῶνι Ἀθηναῖοι τῷ πατρίῳ νόμῳ χρώμενοι
δημοσίᾳ ταφὰς ἐποιήσαντο τῶν ἐν τῷδε τῷ πολέμῳ 2 . 34 . 2 . 1
πρώτων ἀποθανόντων τρόπῳ τοιῷδε . τὰ μὲν ὀστᾶ
προτίθενται τῶν ἀπογενομένων πρότριτα σκηνὴν ποιήσαντες , καὶ 2 . 34 . 3 . 1
ἐπιφέρει τῷ αὑτοῦ ἕκαστος ἤν τι βούληται · ἐπειδὰν δὲ
ἐκφορὰ , λάρνακας κυπαρισσίνας ἄγουσιν ἅμαξαι , φυλῆς
ἑκάστης μίαν · ἔνεστι δὲ τὰ ὀστᾶ ἧς ἕκαστος ἦν φυλῆς .
μία δὲ κλίνη κενὴ φέρεται ἐστρωμένη τῶν ἀφανῶν , οἳ ἂν 2 . 34 . 4 . 1
μὴ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐς ἀναίρεσιν . ξυνεκφέρει δὲ βουλόμενος
καὶ ἀστῶν καὶ ξένων , καὶ γυναῖκες πάρεισιν αἱ προσήκουσαι 2 . 34 . 5 . 1
ἐπὶ τὸν τάφον ὀλοφυρόμεναι . τιθέασιν οὖν ἐς τὸ δημόσιον
σῆμα , ἐστιν ἐπὶ τοῦ καλλίστου προαστείου τῆς πόλεως ,
καὶ αἰεὶ ἐν αὐτῷ θάπτουσι τοὺς ἐκ τῶν πολέμων , πλήν γε
τοὺς ἐν Μαραθῶνι · ἐκείνων δὲ διαπρεπῆ τὴν ἀρετὴν κρίναντες 2 . 34 . 6 . 1
αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸν τάφον ἐποίησαν . ἐπειδὰν δὲ κρύψωσι γῇ ,
ἀνὴρ ᾑρημένος ὑπὸ τῆς πόλεως , ὃς ἂν γνώμῃ τε δοκῇ μὴ
ἀξύνετος εἶναι καὶ ἀξιώσει προήκῃ , λέγει ἐπ ' αὐτοῖς ἔπαινον 2 . 34 . 7 . 1
τὸν πρέποντα · μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο ἀπέρχονται . ὧδε μὲν θάπτουσιν ·
καὶ διὰ παντὸς τοῦ πολέμου , ὁπότε ξυμβαίη αὐτοῖς , ἐχρῶντο 2 . 34 . 8 . 1
τῷ νόμῳ . ἐπὶ δ ' οὖν τοῖς πρώτοις τοῖσδε Περικλῆς Ξανθίππου
ᾑρέθη λέγειν . καὶ ἐπειδὴ καιρὸς ἐλάμβανε , προελθὼν
ἀπὸ τοῦ σήματος ἐπὶ βῆμα ὑψηλὸν πεποιημένον , ὅπως ἀκούοιτο
ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τοῦ ὁμίλου , ἔλεγε τοιάδε .
In the same winter the Athenians held a public funeral for the first men to die in the war . The ceremony is as follows . They lay out the bones of the deceased for two full days beforehand in a tent they have constructed and people bring such offerings as they choose for their own dead . On the day of the procession carts bring coffins made of cedar , one for each tribe , and the bones of each man are placed in the coffin of his tribe . One covered but empty bier is led out , prepared for the missing dead whose bodies could not be found for burial . Anyone who wishes citizen or foreigner joins in the procession and the women of the families are present at the grave making their lamentations . They place the coffins in a public tomb , which is in the most beautiful suburb of the city where they always bury their war dead , except of course for those who died at Marathon , whose valour they judged so outstanding that they buried them just where they fell . After they cover the coffins with earth a man chosen by the city for his wise judgement and high public standing delivers over them a suitable eulogy . And then they depart . These are their rites of burial , and they observed this practice throughout the whole war , whenever they had occasion . For these first victims of the war Pericles son of Xanthippus was the man chosen to speak . And when the moment arrived he stepped forward from the tomb , mounted the platform that had been set up so that he could be heard by as many as possible in the throng , and spoke as follows .

( 317 ) 98% POR
( 5 ) 2% POR - GRC

( 5 ) 2% POR - GRC
( 282 ) 98% GRC

( 5 ) 2% POR - GRC
( 282 ) 98% GRC

Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.35)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
  • Created on 2018-09-11 02:59:57
  • Modified on 2018-09-11 16:50:33
  • Translated by Mário da Gamma Kury & Jeremy Mynott
  • Aligned by Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
" Muitos dos que me precederam neste lugar fizeram elogios ao legislador que acrescentou um discurso à cerimônia usual nestas circunstâncias , considerando justo celebrar também com palavras os mortos na guerra em seus funerais . A mim , todavia , ter-me-ia parecido suficiente , tratando-se de homens que se mostraram valorosos em atos , manifestar apenas com atos as honras que lhes prestamos - honras como as que hoje presenciastes nesta cerimônia fúnebre oficial - em vez de deixar o reconhecimento do valor de tantos homens na dependência do maior ou menor talento oratório de um homem . É realmente difícil falar com propriedade numa ocasião em que não é possível aquilatar a credibilidade das palavras do orador . O ouvinte bem informado e disposto favoravelmente pensará talvez que não foi feita a devida justiça em face de seus próprios desejos e de seu conhecimento dos fatos , enquanto outro menos informado , ouvindo falar de um feito além de sua própria capacidade , será levado pela inveja a pensar em algum exagero . De fato , elogios a outras pessoas são toleráveis somente até onde cada um se julga capaz de realizar qualquer dos atos cuja menção está ouvindo ; quando vão além disto , provocam a inveja , e com ela a incredulidade . Seja como for , que nossos antepassados julgaram boa esta prática também devo obedecer à lei , e farei o possível para corresponder à expectativa e às opiniões de cada um de vós .
" ’Οἱ μὲν πολλοὶ τῶν ἐνθάδε ἤδη εἰρηκότων ἐπαινοῦσι τὸν
προσθέντα τῷ νόμῳ τὸν λόγον τόνδε , ὡς καλὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς ἐκ
τῶν πολέμων θαπτομένοις ἀγορεύεσθαι αὐτόν . ἐμοὶ δὲ
ἀρκοῦν ἂν ἐδόκει εἶναι ἀνδρῶν ἀγαθῶν ἔργῳ γενομένων 2 . 35 . 1 . 5
ἔργῳ καὶ δηλοῦσθαι τὰς τιμάς , οἷα καὶ νῦν περὶ τὸν τάφον
τόνδε δημοσίᾳ παρασκευασθέντα ὁρᾶτε , καὶ μὴ ἐν ἑνὶ ἀνδρὶ
πολλῶν ἀρετὰς κινδυνεύεσθαι εὖ τε καὶ χεῖρον εἰπόντι 2 . 35 . 2 . 1
πιστευθῆναι . χαλεπὸν γὰρ τὸ μετρίως εἰπεῖν ἐν μόλις καὶ
δόκησις τῆς ἀληθείας βεβαιοῦται . τε γὰρ ξυνειδὼς καὶ
εὔνους ἀκροατὴς τάχ ' ἄν τι ἐνδεεστέρως πρὸς βούλεταί τε
καὶ ἐπίσταται νομίσειε δηλοῦσθαι , τε ἄπειρος ἔστιν καὶ 2 . 35 . 2 . 5
πλεονάζεσθαι , διὰ φθόνον , εἴ τι ὑπὲρ τὴν αὑτοῦ φύσιν ἀκούοι .
μέχρι γὰρ τοῦδε ἀνεκτοὶ οἱ ἔπαινοί εἰσι περὶ ἑτέρων
λεγόμενοι , ἐς ὅσον ἂν καὶ αὐτὸς ἕκαστος οἴηται ἱκανὸς εἶναι
δρᾶσαί τι ὧν ἤκουσεν · τῷ δὲ ὑπερβάλλοντι αὐτῶν φθονοῦντες 2 . 35 . 3 . 1
ἤδη καὶ ἀπιστοῦσιν . ἐπειδὴ δὲ τοῖς πάλαι οὕτως ἐδοκιμάσθη
ταῦτα καλῶς ἔχειν , χρὴ καὶ ἐμὲ ἑπόμενον τῷ νόμῳ πειρᾶσθαι
ὑμῶν τῆς ἑκάστου βουλήσεώς τε καὶ δόξης τυχεῖν ὡς ἐπὶ
πλεῖστον . 2 . 36 . 1 . 1
"
‘Most of those who havespoken on this occasion in thepast have praised the man who added this speech to the traditional ceremony , regarding it a fitting public tribute at the burial of our war dead . To me , however , it would seem sufficient that when men have proved their worth in action we should also honour them with action as indeed you see us do today in the provision of this state funeral . Otherwise we risk the good name of many on the persuasive powers of one man , who may speak well or badly . It is difficult for a speaker to strike the right balance when there is not even any firm agreement between different perceptions of the truth . The listener who is close to these events and a friend of the dead may perhaps think that the presentation falls short of what he wants to hear and knows to be the case , while a stranger to the situation may suspect some exaggeration , envious if he hears of feats beyond his own abilities . After all , we can only bear to hear words of praise for others as long as we can each imagine ourselves capable of doing something similar ; anything beyond this prompts resentment , and then actual disbelief . However , since our forebears deemed this the right and proper practice , I too must follow the tradition and try to meet your different wishes and expectations as best I can .

( 23 ) 9% POR
( 230 ) 91% POR - GRC

( 171 ) 76% POR - GRC
( 53 ) 24% GRC

( 171 ) 76% POR - GRC
( 53 ) 24% GRC

Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.36)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
" Falarei primeiro de nossos antepassados , pois é justo e ao mesmo tempo conveniente , numa ocasião como esta , dar-lhes este lugar de honra rememorando os seus feitos . Na verdade , perpetuando-se em nossa terra através de gerações sucessivas , eles , por seus méritos , no-la transmitiram livre até hoje . Se eles são dignos de elogios , nossos pais o são ainda mais , pois aumentando a herança recebida , constituíram o império que agora possuímos e a duras penas nos deixaram este legado , a nós que estamos aqui e o temos . Nós mesmos aqui presentes , muitos ainda na plenitude de nossas ' forças , contribuímos para fortalecer o império sob vários aspectos , e demos à nossa cidade todos os recursos , tornando-a auto-suficiente na paz e na guerra .
Quanto a isto , quer se trate de feitos militares que nos proporcionaram esta série de conquistas , ou das ocasiões em que nós ou nossos pais nos empenhamos em repelir as investidas guerreiras tanto bárbaras quanto helênicas , pretendo silenciar , para não me tornar repetitivo aqui diante de pessoas às quais nada teria a ensinar . Mencionarei inicialmente os princípios de conduta , o regime de governo e os traços de caráter graças aos quais conseguimos chegar à nossa posição atual , e depois farei o elogio destes homens , pois penso que no momento presente esta exposição não será imprópria e que todos vós aqui reunidos , cidadãos e estrangeiros , podereis ouvi-la com proveito .
" ’Ἄρξομαι δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν προγόνων πρῶτον · δίκαιον γὰρ
αὐτοῖς καὶ πρέπον δὲ ἅμα ἐν τῷ τοιῷδε τὴν τιμὴν ταύτην
τῆς μνήμης δίδοσθαι . τὴν γὰρ χώραν οἱ αὐτοὶ αἰεὶ οἰκοῦντες
διαδοχῇ τῶν ἐπιγιγνομένων μέχρι τοῦδε ἐλευθέραν δι ' ἀρετὴν 2 . 36 . 2 . 1
παρέδοσαν . καὶ ἐκεῖνοί τε ἄξιοι ἐπαίνου καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον οἱ
πατέρες ἡμῶν · κτησάμενοι γὰρ πρὸς οἷς ἐδέξαντο ὅσην
ἔχομεν ἀρχὴν οὐκ ἀπόνως ἡμῖν τοῖς νῦν προσκατέλιπον . 2 . 36 . 3 . 1
τὰ δὲ πλείω αὐτῆς αὐτοὶ ἡμεῖς οἵδε οἱ νῦν ἔτι ὄντες μάλιστα
ἐν τῇ καθεστηκυίᾳ ἡλικίᾳ ἐπηυξήσαμεν καὶ τὴν πόλιν τοῖς
πᾶσι παρεσκευάσαμεν καὶ ἐς πόλεμον καὶ ἐς εἰρήνην 2 . 36 . 4 . 1
αὐταρκεστάτην . "
" ὧν ἐγὼ τὰ μὲν κατὰ πολέμους ἔργα , οἷς ἕκαστα
ἐκτήθη , εἴ τι αὐτοὶ οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν βάρβαρον Ἕλληνα
πολέμιον ἐπιόντα προθύμως ἠμυνάμεθα , μακρηγορεῖν ἐν εἰδόσιν
οὐ βουλόμενος ἐάσω · ἀπὸ δὲ οἵας τε ἐπιτηδεύσεως 2 . 36 . 4 . 5
ἤλθομεν ἐπ ' αὐτὰ καὶ μεθ ' οἵας πολιτείας καὶ τρόπων ἐξ
οἵων μεγάλα ἐγένετο , ταῦτα δηλώσας πρῶτον εἶμι καὶ ἐπὶ
τὸν τῶνδε ἔπαινον , νομίζων ἐπί τε τῷ παρόντι οὐκ ἂν ἀπρεπῆ
λεχθῆναι αὐτὰ καὶ τὸν πάντα ὅμιλον καὶ ἀστῶν καὶ ξένων
ξύμφορον εἶναι ἐπακοῦσαι αὐτῶν . 2 . 37 . 1 . 1 "
I will begin with our ancestors . It is right in itself and also proper to the occasion that they should have the honour of first mention . This is a land occupied continuously by the same people through a succession of generations up to the present day and handed on as a free country , a bequest of their courage . They deserve our praise , and still more so do our fathers , for in addition to what they inherited they acquired after many a struggle the whole of the empire we now have , which they then left as a legacy to our own generation . And we here today , who are still alive and for the most part in the prime of life , we have further strengthened it and have provided the city with every resource to make it independent both in peace and in war .
" Their deeds in war , through which each of these possessions was won , and the occasions when we or our fathers fought hard to repel enemy attack , whether from Greeks or foreigners these I pass over . This audience knows them well and I do not wish to labour a familiar theme . Instead , I shall portray the way of life that brought us to our present position and the institutions and habits of mind behind our rise to greatness , and then I shall proceed to my commendation of the dead . I trust that such a speech will be appropriate to the present occasion and that the whole body of townspeople and foreign visitors in the audience may listen to it with advantage .
"

( 258 ) 100% POR
( 0 ) 0% POR - GRC

( 0 ) 0% POR - GRC
( 228 ) 100% GRC

( 0 ) 0% POR - GRC
( 228 ) 100% GRC

Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.37)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
" Vivemos sob uma forma de governo que não se baseia nas instituições de nossos vizinhos " ; ao contrário , servimos de modelo a alguns 29 ao invés de imitar outros . Seu nome , como tudo depende não de poucos mas da maioria , é democracia . Nela , enquanto no tocante às leis todos são iguais para a solução de suas divergências privadas , quando se trata de escolher ( se é preciso distinguir em qualquer setor ) , não é o fato de pertencer a uma classe , mas o mérito , que acesso aos postos mais honrosos ; inversamente , a pobreza não é razão para que alguém , sendo capaz de prestar serviços à cidade , seja impedido de fazê-lo pela obscuridade de sua condição . Conduzimo-nos liberalmente em nossa vida pública , e não observamos com uma curiosidade suspicaz a vida privada de nossos concidadãos , pois não nos ressentimos com nosso vizinho se ele age como lhe apraz , nem o olhamos com ares de reprovação que , embora inócuos , lhe causariam desgosto . Ao mesmo tempo que evitamos ofender os outros em nosso convívio privado , em nossa vida pública nos afastamos da ilegalidade principalmente por causa de um temor reverente , pois somos submissos às autoridades e às leis , especialmente àquelas promulgadas para socorrer os oprimidos e às que , embora não escritas , trazem aos transgressores uma desonra visível a todos .
" ’Χρώμεθα γὰρ πολιτείᾳ οὐ ζηλούσῃ τοὺς τῶν πέλας
νόμους , παράδειγμα δὲ μᾶλλον αὐτοὶ ὄντες τισὶν μιμού-
μενοι ἑτέρους . καὶ ὄνομα μὲν διὰ τὸ μὴ ἐς ὀλίγους ἀλλ '
ἐς πλείονας οἰκεῖν δημοκρατία κέκληται · μέτεστι δὲ κατὰ 2 . 37 . 1 . 5
μὲν τοὺς νόμους πρὸς τὰ ἴδια διάφορα πᾶσι τὸ ἴσον , κατὰ
δὲ τὴν ἀξίωσιν , ὡς ἕκαστος ἔν τῳ εὐδοκιμεῖ , οὐκ ἀπὸ μέρους
τὸ πλέον ἐς τὰ κοινὰ ἀπ ' ἀρετῆς προτιμᾶται , οὐδ ' αὖ
κατὰ πενίαν , ἔχων γέ τι ἀγαθὸν δρᾶσαι τὴν πόλιν , 2 . 37 . 2 . 1
ἀξιώματος ἀφανείᾳ κεκώλυται . ἐλευθέρως δὲ τά τε πρὸς τὸ
κοινὸν πολιτεύομεν καὶ ἐς τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους τῶν καθ '
ἡμέραν ἐπιτηδευμάτων ὑποψίαν , οὐ δι ' ὀργῆς τὸν πέλας , εἰ
καθ ' ἡδονήν τι δρᾷ , ἔχοντες , οὐδὲ ἀζημίους μέν , λυπηρὰς δὲ 2 . 37 . 3 . 1
τῇ ὄψει ἀχθηδόνας προστιθέμενοι . ἀνεπαχθῶς δὲ τὰ ἴδια
προσομιλοῦντες τὰ δημόσια διὰ δέος μάλιστα οὐ παρανο-
μοῦμεν , τῶν τε αἰεὶ ἐν ἀρχῇ ὄντων ἀκροάσει καὶ τῶν νόμων ,
καὶ μάλιστα αὐτῶν ὅσοι τε ἐπ ' ὠφελίᾳ τῶν ἀδικουμένων 2 . 37 . 3 . 5
κεῖνται καὶ ὅσοι ἄγραφοι ὄντες αἰσχύνην ὁμολογουμένην
φέρουσιν . 2 . 38 . 1 . 1
"
We enjoy a form of government that does not emulate the institutions of our neighbours ; indeed we ourselves are more often the model for others than their imitators . Democracy is the name we give to it , since we manage our affairs in the interests of the many not the few ; but though everyone is equal before the law in the matter of private disputes , in terms of public distinction preferment for office is determined on merit , not by rank but by personal worth ; moreover , poverty is no bar to anyone who has it in them to benefit the city in some way , however lowly their status . A spirit of freedom governs our conduct , not only in public affairs but also in managing the small tensions of everyday life , where we show no animosity at our neighbours’ choice of pleasures , nor cast aspersions that may hurt even if they do not harm . Although we associate as individuals in this tolerant spirit , in public affairs fear makes us the most severely law-abiding of people , obedient to whoever is in authority and to the laws , especially those established to help the victims of injustice and those laws which , though unwritten , carry the sanction of public disgrace .

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Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.38)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
" Instituímos muitos entretenimentos para o alívio da mente fatigada ; temos concursos , temos festas religiosas regulares ao longo de todo o ano , e nossas casas são arranjadas com bom gosto e elegância , e o deleite que isto nos traz todos os dias afasta de nós a tristeza . Nossa cidade é tão importante que os produtos de todas as terras fluem para nós , e ainda temos a sorte de colher os bons frutos de nossa própria terra com certeza de prazer não menor que o sentido em relação aos produtos de outras . "
" ’Καὶ μὴν καὶ τῶν πόνων πλείστας ἀναπαύλας τῇ γνώμῃ
ἐπορισάμεθα , ἀγῶσι μέν γε καὶ θυσίαις διετησίοις νομίζοντες ,
ἰδίαις δὲ κατασκευαῖς εὐπρεπέσιν , ὧν καθ ' ἡμέραν τέρψις 2 . 38 . 2 . 1
τὸ λυπηρὸν ἐκπλήσσει . ἐπεσέρχεται δὲ διὰ μέγεθος τῆς
πόλεως ἐκ πάσης γῆς τὰ πάντα , καὶ ξυμβαίνει ἡμῖν μηδὲν
οἰκειοτέρᾳ τῇ ἀπολαύσει τὰ αὐτοῦ ἀγαθὰ γιγνόμενα καρποῦ-
σθαι καὶ τὰ τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων . "
" Furthermore , we have provided many diversions from work to refresh the spirit : there are regular public games and festivals of sacrifice throughout the year , while in private we have lovely things at home to delight us every day and drive away our cares . Because of the importance of our city the products of the whole world all flow in here , and it is our good fortune to enjoy with the same familiar pleasure both our home-produced goods and those of other peoples . "

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