Vita di Eschilo, parte II

/ Vita di Eschilo
  • Created on 2018-07-27 08:40:10
  • Translated by Translation by S. Burges Watson, Living Poets, (Durham, 2014)
  • Aligned by
Ἑλληνική Transliterate
English
καὶ σφόδρα τῶι τε τυράννωι Ἱέρωνι καὶ τοῖς Γελώιοις τιμηθεὶς ἐπιζήσας τρίτον ἔτος γηραιὸς ἐτελεύτα τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον · ἀετὸς γὰρ χελώνην ἁρπάσας , ὡς ἐγκρατὴς γενέσθαι τῆς ἄγρας οὐκ ἴσχυεν , ἀφίησι κατὰ πετρῶν αὐτὴν συνθλάσσων τὸ δέρμα · δὲ ἐνεχθεῖσα κατὰ τοῦ ποιητοῦ φονεύει αὐτόν . χρηστηριασθεὶς δὲ ἦν , " οὐράνιόν σε βέλος κατακτενεῖ . "

11 ἀποθανόντα δὲ Γελῶιοι πολυτελῶς ἐν τοῖς δημοσίοις μνήμασι θάψαντες ἐτίμησαν μεγαλοπρεπῶς , ἐπιγράψαντες οὕτω ·

Αἰσχύλον Εὐφορίωνος Ἀθηναῖον τόδε κεύθει
μνῆμα καταφθίμενον πυροφόροιο Γέλας ·
ἀλκὴν δ’ εὐδόκιμον Μαραθώνιον ἄλσος ἂν
[ εἴποι
καὶ βαθυχαιτήεις Μῆδος ἐπιστάμενος .

εἰς τὸ μνῆμα δὲ φοιτῶντες ὅσοις ἐν τραγωιδίαις ἦν βίος ἐνήγιζόν τε καὶ τὰ δράματα ὑπεκρίνοντο .

12 Ἀθηναῖοι δὲ τοσοῦτον ἠγάπησαν Αἰσχύλον ὡς ψηφίσασθαι μετὰ < τὸν > θάνατον αὐτοῦ τὸν βουλόμενον διδάσκειν τὰ Αἰσχύλου χορὸν λαμβάνειν .

13 ἐβίω δὲ ἔτη ξγ΄ , ἐν οἷς ἐποίησεν δράματα ο΄ καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις σατυρικὰ ἀμφὶ τὰ †ε΄† . νίκας δὲ τὰς πάσας εἴληφε τρεισκαίδεκα · οὐκ ὀλίγας δὲ μετὰ τελευτὴν νίκας ἀπηνέγκατο .

14 πρῶτος Αἰσχύλος πάθεσι γεννικωτάτοις τὴν τραγωιδίαν ηὔξησεν τήν τε σκηνὴν ἐκόσμησεν καὶ τὴν ὄψιν τῶν θεωμένων κατέπληξεν τῆι λαμπρότητι , γραφαῖς καὶ μηχαναῖς , βωμοῖς τε καὶ τάφοις , σάλπιγξιν , εἰδώλοις , Ἐρινύσι , τούς τε ὑποκριτὰς χειρῖσι σκεπάσας καὶ τῶι σύρματι ἐξογκώσας μείζοσί τε τοῖς κοθόρνοις μετεωρίσας .

15 ἐχρήσατο δὲ ὑποκριτῆι πρώτωι μὲν Κλεάνδρωι , ἔπειτα καὶ τὸν δεύτερον αὐτῶι προσῆψε Μυννίσκον τὸν Χαλκιδέα · τὸν δὲ τρίτον ὑποκριτὴν αὐτὸς ἐξεῦρεν , ὡς δὲ Δικαίαρχος Μεσσήνιος , Σοφοκλῆς .

16 τὸ δὲ ἁπλοῦν τῆς δραματοποιίας εἰ μέν τις πρὸς τοὺς μετ’ αὐτὸν λογίζοιτο , φαῦλον ἂν ἐκλαμβάνοι καὶ ἀπραγμάτευτον , εἰ δὲ πρὸς τοὺς ἀνωτέρω , θαυμάσειε τῆς ἐπινοίας τὸν ποιητὴν καὶ τῆς εὑρέσεως . ὅτωι δὲ δοκεῖ τελεώτερος τραγωιδίας ποιητὴς Σοφοκλῆς γεγονέναι , ὀρθῶς μὲν δοκεῖ , λογιζέσθω δὲ ὅτι πολλῶι χαλεπώτερον ἦν ἐπὶ Θέσπιδι , Φρυνίχωι τε καὶ Χοιρίλωι εἰς τοσόνδε μεγέθους τὴν τραγωιδίαν προαγαγεῖν ἐπὶ Ἀισχύλωι εἰσιόντα εἰς τὴν Σοφοκλέους ἐλθεῖν τελειότητα .

17 ἐπιγέγραπται τῶι τάφωι αὐτοῦ ·

αἰετοῦ ἐξ ὀνύχων βρέγμα τυπεὶς ἔθανον .
18 φασὶν ὑπὸ Ἱέρωνος ἀξιωθέντα ἀναδιδάξαι τοὺς Πέρσας ἐν Σικελίαι καὶ λίαν εὐδοκιμεῖν .
Having been greatly honored by the tyrant Hieron and the citizens of Gela , he lived a further two years and died an old man in the following way : an eagle had seized a tortoise , but was not strong enough to break open its prey , so dropped it on the rocks to crush its shell . But the tortoise fell on the poet’s head and killed him . In fact , it had been prophesied to him : ‘a heavenly missile will kill you .

11 After his death , the citizens of Gela gave him a public burial and honoured him magnificently by writing the following epitaph :

This memorial holds Aeschylus the Athenian , son of Euphorion , who died in grain-bearing Gela . The grove of Marathon could speak of his famous courage and the Mede with thick long hair who knows of it .
And whoever was professionally involved in tragedy , when they visited his memorial , would offer sacrifices and declaim his dramas .

12 But the Athenians loved Aeschylus so much that they voted after his death that anyone who wished to put on the plays of Aeschylus would receive a chorus .

13 He lived for sixty three years , during which he put on seventy dramas and additionally around †five† satyr plays . In total , he was victorious thirteen times . He also won quite a few victories after his death .

14 Aeschylus was the first to augment tragedy with the noblest sufferings and he decorated the stage-building and astounded the spectators’ gaze with splendour , paintings and machines , altars and tombs , trumpets , ghosts and Erinyes , and he gave the actors long sleeves , increasing their size with long robes and raising them up on bigger boots .

15 He used Cleandrus as his first actor , then he added a second actor , Mynniscus the Chalcidean . The third actor he himself introduced , although Dichaearchus of Messene says that it was Sophocles .

16 With regard to the simplicity of his dramatic composition , if one were to judge him in relation to the playwrights who succeeded him , one would find him unsophisticated and lacking elaboration , but if one were to judge him in relation to those who preceded him , one would marvel at the poet’s ingenuity and inventiveness . Anyone who thinks that Sophocles was the more perfect tragic poet , is right to do so , but should consider that it was far more difficult for a playwright who succeeded Thespis , Phrynichus and Choerilus to bring tragedy to such greatness than for a successor of Aeschylus to reach even the perfection of Sophocles .

17 On his tomb has been inscribed :

I died , struck on the forehead by a missile from an eagle’s claws .
18 They say that being esteemed by Hieron , he re-produced the Persians in Sicily to great acclaim

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