Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

Anna Potash /
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Apuleius, Metamorphoses1.1

Thomas Moore /
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Pericles Funeral Oration (Thu II.34)

Bernardo CDA Vasconcelos / Thucydides
Português
Ἑλληνική
English
34 . No curso do mesmo inverno os atenienses , seguindo um costume de seus antepassados , celebraram a expensas do tesouro os ritos fúnebres dos primeiros concidadãos vítimas desta guerra . A cerimônia consiste no seguinte : os ossos dos defuntos são expostos num catafalco durante três dias , sob um toldo próprio para isto , e os habitantes trazem para os seus mortos as oferendas desejadas ; no dia do funeral ataúdes de cipreste são trazidos em carretas , um para cada tribo , e os ossos de cada um são postos no ataúde de sua tribo ; um ataúde vazio , coberto por um pálio , também é levado em procissão , reservado aos desaparecidos cujos cadáveres não foram encontrados para o sepultamento . Todos os que desejam , cidadãos ou estrangeiros , podem participar da procissão fúnebre , e as mulheres das famílias dos defuntos também comparecem e fazem lamentações ; os ataúdes são postos no mausoléu oficial , situado no subúrbio mais belo da cidade " ; são sempre sepultados os mortos em guerra , à exceção dos que tombaram em Maratona que , por seus méritos excepcionais , foram enterrados no próprio local da batalha . Após o enterro dos restos mortais , um cidadão escolhido pela cidade , considerado o mais qualificado em termos de inteligência e tido na mais alta estima pública , pronuncia um elogio adequado em honra dos defuntos . Depois disso o povo se retira . São assim os funerais e durante toda a guerra , sempre que havia oportunidade , esse costume era observado . No caso presente das primeiras vítimas da guerra , Péricles filho de Xântipos foi escolhido para falar . No momento oportuno ele avançou para o local do mausoléu , subiu à plataforma , bastante alta para que a sua voz fosse ouvida tão longe quanto possível pela multidão , e disse o seguinte :
" Ἐν δὲ τῷ αὐτῷ χειμῶνι Ἀθηναῖοι τῷ πατρίῳ νόμῳ χρώμενοι
δημοσίᾳ ταφὰς ἐποιήσαντο τῶν ἐν τῷδε τῷ πολέμῳ 2 . 34 . 2 . 1
πρώτων ἀποθανόντων τρόπῳ τοιῷδε . τὰ μὲν ὀστᾶ
προτίθενται τῶν ἀπογενομένων πρότριτα σκηνὴν ποιήσαντες , καὶ 2 . 34 . 3 . 1
ἐπιφέρει τῷ αὑτοῦ ἕκαστος ἤν τι βούληται · ἐπειδὰν δὲ
ἐκφορὰ , λάρνακας κυπαρισσίνας ἄγουσιν ἅμαξαι , φυλῆς
ἑκάστης μίαν · ἔνεστι δὲ τὰ ὀστᾶ ἧς ἕκαστος ἦν φυλῆς .
μία δὲ κλίνη κενὴ φέρεται ἐστρωμένη τῶν ἀφανῶν , οἳ ἂν 2 . 34 . 4 . 1
μὴ εὑρεθῶσιν ἐς ἀναίρεσιν . ξυνεκφέρει δὲ βουλόμενος
καὶ ἀστῶν καὶ ξένων , καὶ γυναῖκες πάρεισιν αἱ προσήκουσαι 2 . 34 . 5 . 1
ἐπὶ τὸν τάφον ὀλοφυρόμεναι . τιθέασιν οὖν ἐς τὸ δημόσιον
σῆμα , ἐστιν ἐπὶ τοῦ καλλίστου προαστείου τῆς πόλεως ,
καὶ αἰεὶ ἐν αὐτῷ θάπτουσι τοὺς ἐκ τῶν πολέμων , πλήν γε
τοὺς ἐν Μαραθῶνι · ἐκείνων δὲ διαπρεπῆ τὴν ἀρετὴν κρίναντες 2 . 34 . 6 . 1
αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸν τάφον ἐποίησαν . ἐπειδὰν δὲ κρύψωσι γῇ ,
ἀνὴρ ᾑρημένος ὑπὸ τῆς πόλεως , ὃς ἂν γνώμῃ τε δοκῇ μὴ
ἀξύνετος εἶναι καὶ ἀξιώσει προήκῃ , λέγει ἐπ ' αὐτοῖς ἔπαινον 2 . 34 . 7 . 1
τὸν πρέποντα · μετὰ δὲ τοῦτο ἀπέρχονται . ὧδε μὲν θάπτουσιν ·
καὶ διὰ παντὸς τοῦ πολέμου , ὁπότε ξυμβαίη αὐτοῖς , ἐχρῶντο 2 . 34 . 8 . 1
τῷ νόμῳ . ἐπὶ δ ' οὖν τοῖς πρώτοις τοῖσδε Περικλῆς Ξανθίππου
ᾑρέθη λέγειν . καὶ ἐπειδὴ καιρὸς ἐλάμβανε , προελθὼν
ἀπὸ τοῦ σήματος ἐπὶ βῆμα ὑψηλὸν πεποιημένον , ὅπως ἀκούοιτο
ὡς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον τοῦ ὁμίλου , ἔλεγε τοιάδε .
In the same winter the Athenians held a public funeral for the first men to die in the war . The ceremony is as follows . They lay out the bones of the deceased for two full days beforehand in a tent they have constructed and people bring such offerings as they choose for their own dead . On the day of the procession carts bring coffins made of cedar , one for each tribe , and the bones of each man are placed in the coffin of his tribe . One covered but empty bier is led out , prepared for the missing dead whose bodies could not be found for burial . Anyone who wishes citizen or foreigner joins in the procession and the women of the families are present at the grave making their lamentations . They place the coffins in a public tomb , which is in the most beautiful suburb of the city where they always bury their war dead , except of course for those who died at Marathon , whose valour they judged so outstanding that they buried them just where they fell . After they cover the coffins with earth a man chosen by the city for his wise judgement and high public standing delivers over them a suitable eulogy . And then they depart . These are their rites of burial , and they observed this practice throughout the whole war , whenever they had occasion . For these first victims of the war Pericles son of Xanthippus was the man chosen to speak . And when the moment arrived he stepped forward from the tomb , mounted the platform that had been set up so that he could be heard by as many as possible in the throng , and spoke as follows .

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

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Apuleius, Metamorphoses 1.1

LeNae Jones /
  • Created on 2018-09-07 19:54:31
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